Deforestation is the clearing, or cutting down, of forests. The word is normally used to describe the actions of humans in removing forests from the planet, rather than destruction caused by such natural events as hurricanes.

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People have been cutting down trees for thousands of years. In recent times, however, the number of forests being lost through deforestation has grown enormously. This is seen as a great problem that affects the environment in many important ways.

Experts estimate that about 500,000 square miles (1.3 million square kilometers) of land is deforested every 10 years. Half of that is primary forest, which means it has never been cut down before. The largest amount of deforestation is happening in tropical areas, where rainforests are being cut down. Most deforestation is permanent. Some areas do recover from this damage, but it can take many years.

Reasons for Deforestation

Trees are cut down so their wood can be burned or used to make things, such as buildings, furniture, or paper. Large areas of trees are removed so that the land can be used to grow crops or to provide places where farm animals can graze. Most of the planet’s croplands were once forests, which would have covered 4.2 million square miles (11 million square kilometers). In tropical areas large areas of forest are cleared in order to plant such crops as coffee, rubber trees, or palm trees. These crops are grown on large farms called plantations. The people who grow them make a great deal of money selling the coffee beans, sap from the rubber trees, and oil from the palm trees. Deforestation also takes place when people want to clear an area to build new settlements.

How Forests Are Cut Down
Slash and Burn

In some countries, especially in tropical areas and in Southeast Asia, farmers cut down large trees and then set fire to areas of a forest to kill off all the animals and plants living there. The ash from the fire helps to fertilize the land, and crops can be grown for a few years before the land becomes useless. The farmers then leave the area and move to a new place. This traditional method of deforestation is called slash and burn.

Forest plants and animals may return to the land, but it takes many years. Some places never recover.


Large areas of forest are cut down by a process called logging. Machines or humans fell hundreds, or sometimes thousands, of trees and remove them for use as lumber.

Problems Caused by Deforestation

Trees and other green plants produce oxygen, the gas needed by humans and other animals to live. When trees are cut down, less oxygen is released into the atmosphere.

Trees also capture carbon dioxide, one of the gases that contribute to a problem known as global warming. When they are burned, trees release carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere.


Deforestation on steep mountain hillsides can lead to erosion. The land can get worn away because the trees are not there to hold the soil together. Heavy rains in such areas can wash the land down the slopes in disastrous landslides that destroy fields, homes, and human lives.

Habitat Loss

Many forests are peaceful, quiet places where people can rest or play. When trees are cut down, this recreational use of forests is lost.

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Forests are home to an enormous range of living things. When an area is deforested, many plants and animals are killed. Others lose their habitats. Some types of living things become extinct because of deforestation, especially those that live in tropical rainforests. The traditional way of life for rainforest peoples can be greatly affected by deforestation.