Gold

Element 79 of Periodic table is Gold with atomic number 79, atomic weight 196.96655. Gold, symbol Au, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Gold color. Gold is a transition metal element. Trivial name of Gold is coinage metals. Know everything about Gold Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.


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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from Latin:aurum) and atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element.

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Gold Facts

Read key information and facts about element Gold

Name Gold
Atomic Number 79
Atomic Symbol Au
Atomic Weight 196.96655
Phase Solid
Color Gold
Classification transition metal
Group in Periodic Table 11
Group Name copper family
Period in Periodic Table 6
Block in Periodic Table d-block
Electronic Configuration 4f14 5d10 6s1
Melting Point 1064.18 °C
Boiling Point 2856 °C
Electronic Shell Structure <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1>
CAS Number CAS7440-57-5

Neighborhood
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

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How to Locate Gold on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 79 to find Gold on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Gold on periodic table look for cross section of group 11 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Explore Interactive Periodic Table to Understand and Learn Cool Trends

Table of Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & Orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare Gold with other elements

Gold History

The element Gold was discovered by Middle East in year 2500 BC in unknown place . Gold derived its name from English word (aurum in Latin)

Gold Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Gold in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 6×10-8%
Abundance in Sun 1×10-7%
Abundance in Meteorites 1.7e-07
Abundance in Earth"s Crust 3.1×10-7%
Abundance in Oceans 5×10-9%
Abundance in Humans 1e-07

Crystal Structure of Gold

The solid state structure of Gold is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
407.82 407.82 407.82 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Fm_ 3m
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Space Group Number 225
Crystal Structure Face Centered Cubic

Gold Atomic and Orbital Properties

Gold atoms have 79 electrons and the electronic shell structure is <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1> with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.


Atomic Number 79
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 79
Number of Protons 79
Mass Number 197
Number of Neutrons 118
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1>
Electron Configuration 4f14 5d10 6s1
Valence Electrons 5d10 6s1
Oxidation State -3;-2;-1 1;2;3;5
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2

Shell Structure of Gold - Electrons per energy level


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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Gold - neutral Gold atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Gold atom is 4f14 5d10 6s1. The portion of Gold configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as . For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f14 5d10 6s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

See more: How Many Rhombuses In A Hexagon ? How Many Rhombuses Make A Hexagon

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Gold

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Gold atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s1

Atomic Structure of Gold

Gold atomic radius is 174 pm, while it"s covalent radius is 144 pm.

Atomic Radius

174 pm (1.74 Å)

Atomic Volume 10.2055207254 cm3
Covalent Radius 144 pm (1.44 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 166 pm
Neutron Cross Section 98.7 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Gold

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Gold Chemical Properties: Gold Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Gold is 222.8 kJ/mol

Valence 5
Electronegativity 2.54
ElectronAffinity 222.8 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Gold

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Gold

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 890.1
2 1980

Gold Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Gold Physical Properties

Density 19.3 g/cm3
Molar Volume 10.2055207254 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 78 GPa
Shear Modulus 27 GPa
Bulk Modulus 220 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.44

Hardness of Gold - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 2.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness 216 MPa
Brinell Hardness 2450 MPa

Gold Electrical Properties

Gold is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Gold

Electrical Conductivity 4.5×107 S/m
Resistivity 2.2×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Gold Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 320 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000142 K-1

Gold Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -1.78×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -3.51×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -3.44e-05

Optical Properties of Gold

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Gold

Speed of Sound 1740 m/s

Gold Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Gold

Melting Point 1337.33 K (1064.18 °C)
Boiling Point 3129 K (2856 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Gold

Heat of Fusion 12.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 330 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Gold Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Gold

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Gold has 1 stable isotope - 197Au.


Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
169Au
170Au
171Au
172Au
173Au
174Au
175Au
176Au
177Au
178Au
179Au
180Au
181Au
182Au
183Au
184Au
185Au
186Au
187Au
188Au
189Au
190Au
191Au
192Au
193Au
194Au
195Au
196Au
197Au 100% Stable N/A
198Au
199Au
200Au
201Au
202Au
203Au
204Au
205Au

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-57-5
RTECS Number RTECSMD5070000
DOT Hazard Class N/A
DOT Numbers N/A
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-57-5
CID Number CID23985
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSMD5070000

Compare Gold with all Group 11 elements

Gold vs Copper Gold vs Silver Gold vs Roentgenium

Compare Gold with all transition metal elements

Gold vs Scandium Gold vs Titanium Gold vs Vanadium Gold vs Chromium Gold vs Manganese Gold vs Iron Gold vs Cobalt Gold vs Nickel Gold vs Copper Gold vs Zinc Gold vs Yttrium Gold vs Zirconium Gold vs Niobium Gold vs Molybdenum Gold vs Technetium Gold vs Ruthenium Gold vs Rhodium Gold vs Palladium Gold vs Silver Gold vs Cadmium Gold vs Hafnium Gold vs Tantalum Gold vs Tungsten Gold vs Rhenium Gold vs Osmium Gold vs Iridium Gold vs Platinum Gold vs Mercury Gold vs Rutherfordium Gold vs Dubnium Gold vs Seaborgium Gold vs Bohrium Gold vs Hassium Gold vs Meitnerium Gold vs Darmstadtium Gold vs Roentgenium Gold vs Copernicium