CHAPTER 1 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Define each of the following terms: a) Data: raw data not processed. This usually includes telephone numbers, a date of birth, customer name etc. It has little meaning until it is turned into information. b) Field: A character or group of characters that has a specific meaning. A field is used to define and store data. c) Record: A logically connected set of one or more fields that describes a person, place, or thing. d) File: A collection of related records. 2. What is data redundancy, and which characteristics of the file system can lead to it? a. Data redundancy is when the same data are stored unnecessarily at different places. This can lead to poor data security, and data inconsistency. 3. What is data independence, and why is it lacking in file systems? b. Data independence is when you change the data storage characterizes and it doesn’t affect the program’s ability to access the data. 4. What is a DBMS, and what are its functions? c. A DBMS (database management system) is a collection of program that stores and manages data and control access to the data in the collection. It is responsible for creating, editing, deleting and maintain all the data inserted. 5. What is structural independence, and why is it important? d. Access to a file is dependent on the structure of the database. Without structural independence new changes such as adding a field, or a decimal in a record would make the new file or query inoperable and unusable. 6. Explain the differences among data, information, and a database. e. Data: raw information that has not yet been processed. It refers to the collection of facts stores in the database. Example is a date of birth. Medical record number, etc. f. Information is usually used interchangeably with data; however they...
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