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long sea voyages required better navigational instruments, which led to research in astronomy and mathematics. as scientists looked more closely at the world around them, they made discoveries that did not match ancient beliefs.
each pendulum swing takes the same amount of time; falling objects accelerate at a fixed rate; jupiter has moons.
the same force - gravity - rules all matter on earth and in space. every object in the universe attracts each other; the degree of attraction is determined by mass and distance.
boles law explaining the relationship of volume, temperature, and pressure of gas; discovery of oxygen
believed in tolerance, reason, and freedom of thought, expression, and religious belief; fought against prejudice and superstition
advocated separation of powers and checks and balances to keep any individual or group from gaining complete control of government
committed to individual freedom; viewed government as an agreement among free individuals to create a society guided by the "general will"; unlike other enlightenment thinkers, believed that civilization corrupted people"s natural goodness and destroyed freedom and equality
believed laws exist to preserve social order; advocated a criminal justice system based on fairness and reason
believe that women, like men, need education to become virtuous and useful; argued for women"s rights to become educated and to participate in politics
encouraged people to judge for themselves what was right or wrong in society and to rely on human reason to solve social problems
write a paragraph contrasting thomas hobbes"s social contract view of government with the political philosophy of john locke.
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in hobbes"s view, because people always acted in their own self-interest they needed a social contract, or government, to keep order; the best government would be an absolute monarchy that would impose order and demand obedience. locke believed that people were reasonable beings with the natural ability to govern themselves. the purpose was to protect their natural rights of life, liberty, and property.
exhibited great range in his works; moved from the classical style of mozart to begin new trend that carried music into the age of romanticism