Tabeta bakari da.
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<食>たべたばかりだ。(Tabeta bakari da)I have just eaten.
食べたばかりなの？(Tabeta bakari nano?)Have you just eaten?
食べたばかりではない。(Tabeta bakari dewa nai)I have not just eaten.
There is a writing style named 論文調 that is for an essay in les-grizzlys-catalans.org,and the end of sentence is "da/dearu" meaning the assertion.It seems that any examples of the language textbooks use this style usually.That is a mechanical style at the opposite end of the polite style of expressions such a honorific language,and it is a kind of literary style.
ばかり【bakari】 is a 副助詞 (adverbial particle), which is derived from the 連用形 (-masu stem) of the verb はかる. But the particle (and 連用形 in general) behaves much like a noun. (Join to other noun-like words with の, make into a predicate by adding だ, etc.)
Now you essentially have a noun phrase 食べたばかり. To make a sentence out of this, you have to add だ・です (or だった・でした in the past tense).
This is the same as in
本だ。 hon da.
As you said, “だ” is a colloquial form of “です,” a predicate meaning “is, am,” and "食べたばかりだ” means “I’ve finished meal just now.”
“だ” here functions as I am in the state of having finished meal just now.
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