The Bolsheviks began as a small faction of a Marxist party called the Russian Social Democrats. The Bolsheviks came under the leadership of Vladimir Ilyich Ulianov (ool•YAH•nuhf), known to the world as V. I. Lenin.Under Lenin"s direction, the Bolsheviks became a party dedicated to violent revolution. Lenin believed that only violent revolution could destroy the capitalist system. A "vanguard" (forefront) of activists, he said, must form a small party of well-disciplined professional revolutionaries to accomplish the task.n March 1917, he saw an opportunity for the Bolsheviks to seize power. In April 1917, German military leaders, hoping to create disorder in Russia, shipped Lenin to Russia. Lenin and his associates were in a sealed train to prevent their ideas from infecting Germany. Renamed Communist Party in 1918.

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A rural council in the Russian empire, established by Tsar Alexander II in 1864 and abolished in 1917
Followed George Plekhanov who saw the need for more capitalistic development in Russia to create new urban working and middle classes, which Plekhanov"s party would then organize to overthrow the burgeoisie
A self-governing community of peasants in pre-revolutionary Russia having control over local forests, fisheries, and hunting grounds; land was allocated to each family according to size, in return for a fixed sum
200,000 factory workers and other in St. Petersburg assembled peacefully to petition for better working conditions, higher pay, and representative government. "Bloody Sunday" = January 22nd troops killed many --> 500,00 workers on strike and peasant revolts
(Parliament) Established by tsar. Represented peasants and landlords, but allowing workers only small representation. Tsar limited powers of the dumas and chose their class composition
Advocated a far more abrupt communist revolution and stressed the need for the communist party to provide its leadership- "Peace, Land, Bread"- Called for immediate withdrawl from war, land for peasants, and a government-run food distribution system- Armed takeover of government headquarters, railways, power plants, post offices, and telephone exchanges- November 7 = communists seized power
Treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war (1918).
Secret police of early Soviet Russia, established by Bolshevicks after revolution of 1917 to defend regime against dissidents. Criticized for its severe brutality, the agency was reorganized in 1922.
A prison camp for Lenin"s opponents
Leon Trotsky
Russian revolutionary intellectual and close adviser to Lenin. Organized Red Army. A leader of the Bolshevik Revolution (1917), he was later expelled from the Communist Party (1927) and banished (1929) for his opposition to the authoritarianism of Stalin
Successor to Lenin as head of the USSR; strongly nationalist view of Communism; represented anti-Western strain of Russian tradition; crushed opposition to his rule; established series of five-year plans to replace New Economic Policy; fostered agricultural collectivization; led USSR through World War II; furthered cold war with Western Europe and the United States; died in 1953.
Prosperous Russian Peasents that - under Stalin - were sent to Labor Camps as punishment for being succesful
The Romanov czar who was forced to abdicate(resign) his throne as a result of a series of mistakes that evenutally lead to the Russian Revolution., the last czar of Russia
The Romanov czar who gained international respect after defeating Napoleon; his time in power was plagued with civil unrest.
Nicholas II wanted to be an imperial power, to have a warm water port, and to distract the Russia people from their internal problem. As a result, he fought a war with Japan over Korea.
Nicholas II lost the war; As a result, Russia lost most of its naval fleet, civil unrest at home increased, Russia has to stay out of Manchuria and acknowledge Japan"s right to rule Korea.
As a result of poor, unsafe working conditions and inflation, some workers were fired; others went on strike. 200,000 workers marched peacefully to the czar"s winter palace asking for better working conditons, universal sufferage and an end to the Russo-Japanese War (aka: Bloody Sunday).
As a result of Bloody Sunday, strikes, uprisings and mutinies were occuring throughout Russia. To end the revolution, Nicholas II agreed to create a Duma and to make reforms for the people.
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. Stopped Nicholas"s bleeding. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues.
Part one of the Russian Revolution; it began with the abdication of Nicholas II; As a result, the Duma created a provisional government under the leadership of Alexander Kerensky (aka February Revolution).
A respected member of the Duma and a Soviet; he was chosen to be the leader of the provisional government that replaced Nicholas II.
A temporary government created by the Duma after the abdication of the czar; it made the decision to remain in World War One, costing it the support of the soviets and the people.
Part two of the Russian Revolution; it began when Lenin overthrew the provisional government and established Russia as a socialist state under the Bolshevik Party (aka: October Revolution).
The slogan used by Lenin to win the support of the people; Peace appealed to the soldiers; Land appealed to the peasants; and Bread appealed to the workers.
The battle between the Bolsheviks (Red Army) and their opponents (White Army); the Bolsheviks won, however, 15 million Russians were dead, the economy was in ruins, trade was at a standstill and there was a shortage of skilled labor.
In response to the failing socialist policies, Lenin established a temporary compromise with capitalism; Under the NEP, farmers could sell their surplus, individuals could buy and sell for profit and some private ownership of land and business was allowed.

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Stalin"s attempt to modernize the Soviet Union; these set almost impossible quotas for industrial workers and agricultural farmers to meet; As a result of these, the USSR did modernize.

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