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Frog Dissection: External AnatomyExternal Anatomy: What does...Dorsal mean?Ventral mean?Anterior mean?Posterior mean?Head mean?Torso mean?1. Observe the dorsal and ventral sides of the frog.Dorsal side color ___________ Ventral side color ____________2. Examine the hind legs.How many toes are present on each foot? ________Are the toes webbed? ______3. Examine the forelegs.How many toes are present? _________Are the toes webbed? _______4. What does amphibian mean? ___________________________ Why is it named that?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________5. Name 2 ways forelimbs are different than hind limbs.6. How does the tympanic membrane work?7. Is the frog"s skin scaley or slimey? ____________Anatomy of the Frog"s Mouth1. Locate the tongue. Does it attach to the front or the back of the mouth? __________Draw a sketch of the tongue, paying attention to its shape.Tongue Sketch:2. The frog’s tongue is anchored in the very front – opposite to the orientation and anchoring ofhumans. Why do you think this is so?3. In the center of the mouth, toward the back is a single round opening. This is the____________________. This tube leads to the stomach.4. Close to the angles of the jaw are two openings, one on each side. These are the_____________________ tubes. They are used to equalize pressure in the inner ear whilethe frog is swimming.5. To what structure does the Eustachian tube attach? _____________________6. Just behind the tongue, and before you reach the esophagus is a slit like opening. Thisslit is the _______________, and it is the opening to the lungs. The frog breathes andvocalizes with this structure.7. The frog has two sets of teeth. The _______________ teeth are found on the roof of themouth. The __________________teeth are found around the edge of the mouth. Both areused for holding prey, frogs swallow their meals whole and do NOT chew. Run you fingerover both sets of teeth and note the differences between them.8. Label each of the structures underlined above.Draw any additional sketches here.9. Complete the table.StructureVomerine TeethEustachian TubesTympanic MembraneEsophagusGlottisTongueFunctionLocationInternal FrogFat Bodies --Spaghetti shaped structures that have a bright orange or yellow color, if you have aparticularly fat frog, these fat bodies may need to be removed to see the other structures. Usually theyare located just on the inside of the abdominal wall. Peritoneum A spider web like membrane thatcovers many of the organs, you may have to carefully pick it off to get a clear view.Liver--The largest structure of the the body cavity. This brown colored organ is composed of three parts,or lobes. The right lobe, the left anterior lobe, and the left posterior lobe. The liver is not primarily anorgan of digestion, it does secrete a digestive juice called bile. Bile is needed for the proper digestion offats.Heart - at the top of the liver, the heart is a triangular structure. The left and right atrium can be foundat the top of the heart. A single ventricle located at the bottom of the heart. The large vessel extendingout from the heart is the conus arteriosis.Lungs - Locate the lungs by looking underneath and behind the heart and liver. They are two spongyorgans.Gall bladder--Lift the lobes of the liver, there will be a small green sac under the liver. This is the gallbladder, which stores bile. (hint: it kind of looks like a booger)Stomach--Curving from underneath the liver is the stomach. The stomach is the first major site ofchemical digestion. Frogs swallow their meals whole. Follow the stomach to where it turns into the smallintestine. The pyloric sphincter valve regulates the exit of digested food from the stomach to the smallintestine.Small Intestine--Leading from the stomach. The first straight portion of the small intestine is called theduodenum, the curled portion is the ileum. The ileum is held together by a membrane called themesentery. Note the blood vessels running through the mesentery, they will carry absorbed nutrientsaway from the intestine. Absorption of digested nutrients occurs in the small intestine.Large Intestine--As you follow the small intestine down, it will widen into the large intestine. The largeintestine is also known as the cloaca in the frog. The cloaca is the last stop before wastes, sperm, orurine exit the frog"s body. (The word "cloaca" means sewer)Spleen--Return to the folds of the mesentery, this dark red spherical object serves as a holding area forblood.Esophagus--Return to the stomach and follow it upward, where it gets smaller is the beginning of theesophagus. The esophagus is the tube that leads from the frogs mouth to the stomach. Open the frogsmouth and find the esophagus, poke your probe into it and see where it leads.Urogenital System - The frog"s reproductive and excretory system is combined into one system calledthe urogenital system. You will need to know the structures for both the male and female frog, Kidneys flattened bean shaped organs located at the lower back of the frog, near the spine. They are often adark color. The kidneys filter wastes from the blood.Testes - in male frogs, these organs are located at the top of the kidneys, they are pale colored androundish.Oviducts - females do not have testes, though you may see a curly-q type structure around the outsideof the kidney, these are the oviducts. Oviducts are where eggs are produced. Males can have structuresthat look similar, but serve no actual purpose. In males, they are called vestigial oviducts.Bladder - An empty sac located at the lowest part of the body cavity. The bladder stores urine.Cloaca - mentioned again as part of the urogenital system - urine, sperm and eggs exit here.