Element Cadmium - Cd

Comprehensive data on the chemical element Cadmium is provided on this page; including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Cadmium. Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. In addition technical terms are linked to their definitions and the menu contains links to related articles that are a great aid in one"s studies.

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Cadmium Menu

Cadmium Page OneOverview of CadmiumCadmium"s Name in Other LanguagesAtomic Structure of CadmiumChemical Properties of CadmiumPhysical Properties of CadmiumRegulatory / HealthWho/When/Where/HowCadmium Page TwoNuclides / IsotopesPotential Parent NuclidesCadmium Page ThreeCommon Chemical Compounds of Cadmium

Overview of Cadmium

Atomic Number: 48Group: 12Period: 5Series: Transition Metals

Cadmium"s Name in Other Languages

Latin: CadmiumCzech: KadmiumCroatian: KadmijFrench: CadmiumGerman: Cadmium - sItalian: CadmioNorwegian: KadmiumPortuguese: CádmioRussian: КадмийSpanish: CadmioSwedish: KadmiumAtomic Structure of CadmiumAtomic Radius: 1.71ÅAtomic Volume: 13.1cm3/molCovalent Radius: 1.48ÅCross Section (Thermal Neutron Capture)σa/barns: 2450Crystal Structure: Hexagonal
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Electron Configuration:1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d10 5s2Electrons per Energy Level: 2,8,18,18,2Shell Model
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Ionic Radius:
0.97ÅFilling Orbital: 4d10Number of Electrons (with no charge): 48Number of Neutrons (most common/stable nuclide): 64Number of Protons: 48Oxidation States: 2Valence Electrons: 5s2Electron Dot Model
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Chemical Properties of Cadmium

Electrochemical Equivalent:
2.097g/amp-hrElectron Work Function: 4.22eVElectronegativity: 1.69 (Pauling); 1.46 (Allrod Rochow)Heat of Fusion: 6.192kJ/molIncompatibilities:strong oxidizers, ammonium nitrate, hydrazoic acid, tellurium, zinc, elemental sulfur, seleniumIonization PotentialFirst: 8.993Second: 16.908Third: 37.48Valence Electron Potential (-eV): 30

Physical Properties of Cadmium

Atomic Mass Average: 112.411Boiling Point: 1038K 765°C 1409°FCoefficient of lineal thermal expansion/K-1: 29.8E-6ConductivityElectrical: 0.138 106/cm ΩThermal: 0.968 W/cmKDensity: 8.65g/cc
300KDescription:Silvery white transition metal.Elastic Modulus:Bulk: 42/GPaRigidity: 19/GPaYoungs: 50/GPaEnthalpy of Atomization: 113 kJ/mole
25°CEnthalpy of Fusion: 6.19 kJ/moleEnthalpy of Vaporization: 100 kJ/moleFlammablity Class: Non-combustible solid (except as dust)Freezing Point: see melting pointHardness ScaleBrinell: 203 MN m-2Mohs: 2Heat of Vaporization: 99.57kJ/molMelting Point: 594.33K 321.18°C 610.12°FMolar Volume: 13.01 cm3/moleOptical Reflectivity: 67%Physical State (at 20°C & 1atm): SolidSpecific Heat: 0.231J/gKVapor Pressure = 14.8Pa
321.18°C

Regulatory / Health

CAS Number7440-43-9compoundsUN/NA ID and ERG Guide Number2570 / 154compoundsRTECS: EU9800000OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)TWA: 0.005 mg/m3OSHA PEL Vacated 1989TWA: 0.005 mg/m3NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)IDLH: 9 mg/m3 (Potential NIOSH carcinogen)Routes of Exposure: Inhalation; IngestionTarget Organs: Respiratory system, kidneys, prostate, bloodLevels In Humans:Note: this data represents naturally occuring levels of elements in the typical human, it DOES NOT represent recommended daily allowances.Blood/mg dm-3: 0.0052Bone/p.p.m: 1.8Liver/p.p.m: 2-22Muscle/p.p.m: 0.14-3.2Daily Dietary Intake: 0.007-3 mgTotal Mass In Avg. 70kg human: 50 mg

Who / Where / When / How

Discoverer: Fredrich StromeyerDiscovery Location: Göttingen GermanyDiscovery Year: 1817Name Origin:Greek: kadmeia (ancient name for calamine (ZnCO3)); Latin: cadmia.Abundance of Cadmium:Earth"s Crust/p.p.m.: 0.11Seawater/p.p.m.: Atlantic Suface: 0.0000011Atlantic Deep: 0.000038Pacific Surface: 0.0000011Pacific Deep: 0.0001Atmosphere/p.p.m.: N/ASun (Relative to H=1E12): 71Sources of Cadmium:Obtained as a by product of zinc refining. Annual world production is around 13,900 tons.Uses of Cadmium:Used in nickel-cadmium batteries, nuclear reactor regulator, and red/yellow pigments.Additional Notes:While cadmium is toxic, fatal poisonings rarely occur because of its emetic action, which means little is absorbed.

Cadmium Menu

Cadmium Page OneOverview of CadmiumCadmium"s Name in Other LanguagesAtomic Structure of CadmiumChemical Properties of CadmiumPhysical Properties of CadmiumRegulatory / HealthWho/When/Where/HowCadmium Page TwoNuclides / IsotopesPotential Parent NuclidesCadmium Page ThreeCommon Chemical Compounds of Cadmium

References

A list of reference sources used to compile the data provided on our periodic table of elements can be found on the main periodic table page.

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