Phosphorus

Element 15 of Periodic table is Phosphorus with atomic number 15, atomic weight 30.973761. Phosphorus, symbol P, has a Simple Triclinic structure and Colorless color. Phosphorus is a other nonmetal element. Trivial name of Phosphorus is pentels, pnictogens*. Know everything about Phosphorus Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.


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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15. As an element, phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus—but due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. Instead phosphorus-containing minerals are almost always present in their maximally oxidised state, as inorganic phosphate rocks.

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Phosphorus Facts

Read key information and facts about element Phosphorus

Name Phosphorus
Atomic Number 15
Atomic Symbol P
Atomic Weight 30.973761
Phase Solid
Color Colorless
Classification other nonmetal
Group in Periodic Table 15
Group Name nitrogen family
Period in Periodic Table 3
Block in Periodic Table p-block
Electronic Configuration 3s2 3p3
Melting Point 44.2 °C
Boiling Point 280.5 °C
Electronic Shell Structure <2, 8, 5>
CAS Number CAS7723-14-0

Neighborhood
6
C
7
N
8
O
14
Si
15
P
16
S
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

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How to Locate Phosphorus on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 15 to find Phosphorus on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Phosphorus on periodic table look for cross section of group 15 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.

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Table of Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & Orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare Phosphorus with other elements

Phosphorus History

The element Phosphorus was discovered by Hennig Brand in year 1669 in Germany . Phosphorus derived its name from the Greek word phoosphoros, "carrying light"

Phosphorus Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Phosphorus in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 7e-06
Abundance in Sun 7e-06
Abundance in Meteorites 0.0011
Abundance in Earth"s Crust 0.00099
Abundance in Oceans 7×10-6%
Abundance in Humans 0.011

Crystal Structure of Phosphorus

The solid state structure of Phosphorus is Simple Triclinic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
1145 550.3 1126.1 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
1.25384 1.57725 1.24896

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P-1
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Space Group Number 2
Crystal Structure Simple Triclinic

Phosphorus Atomic and Orbital Properties

Phosphorus atoms have 15 electrons and the electronic shell structure is <2, 8, 5> with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4S3/2.


Atomic Number 15
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 15
Number of Protons 15
Mass Number 31
Number of Neutrons 16
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 5>
Electron Configuration 3s2 3p3
Valence Electrons 3s2 3p3
Oxidation State -3;-2;-1 1;2;3;4;5
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4S3/2

Shell Structure of Phosphorus - Electrons per energy level


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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Phosphorus - neutral Phosphorus atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Phosphorus atom is 3s2 3p3. The portion of Phosphorus configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as . For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s2 3p3, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

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Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Phosphorus

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Phosphorus atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3

Atomic Structure of Phosphorus

Phosphorus atomic radius is 98 pm, while it"s covalent radius is 106 pm.

Atomic Radius

98 pm (0.98 Å)

Atomic Volume 16.9905436094 cm3
Covalent Radius 106 pm (1.06 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 180 pm
Neutron Cross Section 0.18 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Phosphorus

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Phosphorus Chemical Properties: Phosphorus Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Phosphorus is 72 kJ/mol

Valence 5
Electronegativity 2.19
ElectronAffinity 72 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Phosphorus

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Phosphorus

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 1011.8
2 1907
3 2914.1
4 4963.6
5 6273.9
6 21267
7 25431
8 29872
9 35905
10 40950

Phosphorus Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Phosphorus Physical Properties

Density 1.823 g/cm3
Molar Volume 16.9905436094 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
Bulk Modulus 11 GPa
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Phosphorus - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness N/A
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A

Phosphorus Electrical Properties

Phosphorus is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Phosphorus

Electrical Conductivity 1×107 S/m
Resistivity 1×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Phosphorus Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 0.236 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion N/A

Phosphorus Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -1.13×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -3.5×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -2.06e-05

Optical Properties of Phosphorus

Refractive Index 1.001212

Acoustic Properties of Phosphorus

Speed of Sound N/A

Phosphorus Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Phosphorus

Melting Point 317.3 K (44.2 °C)
Boiling Point 553.6 K (280.5 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Phosphorus

Heat of Fusion 0.64 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 12.4 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion "N/A", "N/A", "N/A", "N/A" J/(kg K)

Phosphorus Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Phosphorus

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Phosphorus has 1 stable isotope - 31P.


Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
24P
25P
26P
27P
28P
29P
30P
31P 100% Stable N/A
32P
33P
34P
35P
36P
37P
38P
39P
40P
41P
42P
43P
44P
45P
46P

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7723-14-0
RTECS Number N/A, RTECSTH3495000, RTECSTH3500000, N/A
DOT Hazard Class N/A, 4.1, 4.2, N/A
DOT Numbers "N/A", 1338, 1381, 2447, "N/A"
EU Number N/A, N/A, N/A, N/A
NFPA Fire Rating N/A, 0, 4, N/A
NFPA Hazards N/ A, N/ A, N/ A, N/ A
NFPA Health Rating N/A, 0, 4, N/A
NFPA Reactivity Rating N/A, 2, 2, N/A
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7723-14-0
CID Number CID5462309, CID5462309, CID123286, CID5460700
Gmelin Number N/A, N/A, N/A, N/A
NSC Number N/A, N/A, N/A, N/A
RTECS Number N/A, RTECSTH3495000, RTECSTH3500000, N/A

Compare Phosphorus with all Group 15 elements

Phosphorus vs Nitrogen Phosphorus vs Arsenic Phosphorus vs Antimony Phosphorus vs Bismuth Phosphorus vs Moscovium

Compare Phosphorus with all other nonmetal elements

Phosphorus vs Hydrogen Phosphorus vs Carbon Phosphorus vs Nitrogen Phosphorus vs Oxygen Phosphorus vs Sulfur Phosphorus vs Selenium